(Out of) Memory
If you get an OutOfMemoryError, first increase the Java heap size by a
-Xmx environment setting (e.g. by adding
-Xmx1024m to the
the script files).
Another potential cause for OutOfMemoryErrors is the application of distributions to very large data sets. Most sequences and all other types of
distribution require the source data to fit into RAM. So either use an 'unlimited' sequence like '
repeat' or '
randomWalk' or simply repeat
data set iteration by adding
cyclic="true" to the configuration.
In some environments, the temp directory has a very restrictive disk quota. If you need more space for data generation, you can specify another
directory by the
-Djava.io.tmpdir environment setting (e.g. by adding
-Djava.io.tmpdir=/User/me/mytemp to the
BENERATOR_OPTS in the script files)
If no file encoding was specified, benerator uses the default file encoding of the system it runs on - except if the file itself contains encoding info (like XML).
If all used files have the same encoding and it is different to your system's encoding, you can change set benerator's default encoding by the
-Dfile.encoding environment setting (e.g. by adding
-Dfile.encoding=iso-8859-1 to the
BENERATOR_OPTS in the script files)
When generating data in heterogeneous environments, it is good practice setting the defaultEncoding property of the benerator descriptor file's root element. If only single files have a different encoding, you can specify an encoding property for all built-in file importers and file-based consumers.
A typical error that may arise from wrong file encoding configuration is that file import (e.g. for a CSV file) stops before the end of file is reached.
Benerator logs its event using slf4j as a logging facade to integrate with the logging tools used
by libraries which are used by Benerator. As logging implementation, Apache Log4j 2 is used.
For troubleshooting, it is useful to check and fine-tune logging configuration for tracking down
your issue. This is done by editing the
log4j2.xml file in your
Some interesting logging categories to start with:
Set a category to debug for getting detailed information about its execution. The most important log categories are:
|com.rapiddweller.benerator.main||Events of benerator's main classes, e.g. detailed information about which entities are currently generated|
|com.rapiddweller.benerator.STATE||generator state handling for information which component generator caused termination of the composite generator|
|com.rapiddweller.benerator.factory||Creating generators from descriptor information|
|com.rapiddweller.benerator||Top-level directory for all generators and main classes|
|com.rapiddweller.SQL||SQL commands, e.g. DDL, queries, inserts, updates|
|com.rapiddweller.JDBC||JDBC operations, e.g. connection / transaction handling|
|com.rapiddweller.jdbacl.model.jdbc||Database meta data import|
|com.rapiddweller.platform.db||All database related information that does not fit into the SQL or JDBC category|
|com.rapiddweller.domain||benerator domain packages|
|com.rapiddweller.model descriptor||related information|
|com.rapiddweller.common||low-level operations like data conversion|
When configuring data generation you are likely to encounter error messages.
Depending on the settings it may be difficult to find out what caused the problem. For tracking database-related errors, set batch="false" in
<database> setup and use
pagesize="1" in the
<generate>. These are default settings, so you do not need to specify them explicitly if you did
not change the default.
If that alone does not help, set the log category
com.rapiddweller.benerator.main to debug level to find out which element caused the error. If there
is a stack trace, check it to get a hint of which part of the element's generation went wrong. If that does not help, remove one attribute/reference/id
after the other for finding the actual troublemaker. If you still cannot solve the problem, post a message in the benerator forum. You can check out
the benerator sources from the SVN source repository, open it in Eclipse and debug through the code.
Database Privilege Problems
When importing database metadata, you might encounter exceptions when Benerator tries to get metadata of catalogs or schemas it has no access privileges to.
Usually can fix this by choosing the right schema for your database, e.g.
<database id="db" ... schema="PUBLIC" />
If you are not sure which schema is applicable in your case, edit the logging configuration in
log4j.xml (as described above) and set the category
com.rapiddweller.platform.db to debug.
You will then get a list of schemas as Benerator scans the database metadata, e.g. for an Oracle system:
06:03:45,203 DEBUG [DBSystem] parsing metadata... 06:03:45,203 DEBUG [JDBC] opening connection to jdbc:oracle:thin:@10.37.129.3:1521:XE 06:03:45,226 DEBUG [JDBC] Created connection #4: oracle.jdbc.driver.T4CConnection@741827d1 06:03:45,385 DEBUG [JDBC] opening connection to jdbc:oracle:thin:@10.37.129.3:1521:XE 06:03:45,417 INFO [JDBCDBImporter] Importing database metadata. Be patient, this may take some time... 06:03:45,417 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] Product name: Oracle 06:03:45,419 INFO [JDBCDBImporter] Importing catalogs 06:03:45,430 INFO [JDBCDBImporter] Importing schemas 06:03:45,438 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema ANONYMOUS 06:03:45,438 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema DBSNMP 06:03:45,438 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema DIP 06:03:45,438 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema FLOWS_FILES 06:03:45,439 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema FLOWS_020100 06:03:45,439 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema HR 06:03:45,439 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema MDSYS 06:03:45,440 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema OUTLN 06:03:45,440 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema SHOP 06:03:45,440 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] importing schema SHOP 06:03:45,441 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema SYS 06:03:45,441 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema SYSTEM 06:03:45,441 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema TSMSYS 06:03:45,441 DEBUG [JDBCDBImporter] found schema XDB
Cross-checking this with your access information should make it easy to figure out which one is appropriate in your case.
See the Usual Database Settings.
Some constraint violations may arise when using database batch with nested create-entities. Switch batch off. If the problem does not occur any more, stick with non-batch generation. Otherwise, you need further investigation. When using Oracle, a constraint violation typically looks like this:
java.sql.SQLException: ORA-00001: Unique Constraint (MYSCHEMA.SYS_C0011664) violated
It contains a constraint name you can look up on the database like this:
select * from user_constraints where constraint_name like '%SYS_C0011541%'
The query result will tell you the table name and the constraint type. The constraint types are encoded as follows:
P: Primary key constraint
U: Unique constraint
R: Foreign key constraint
'value too large for column' in Oracle
Depending on the character set, oracle may report a multiple of the real column with, e.g. 80 instead of 20. So, automatic generation of varchar2 columns may fail. This typically results in Exceptions like this:
java.sql.SQLException: ORA-12899: value too large for column "SCHEM"."TBL"."COL" (actual: 40, maximum: 10)
This is Oracle bug #4485954, see http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/tech/java/sqlj_jdbc/htdocs/readme_jdbc_10204.html and
The solution is using the newest JDBC driver, at least
11.0. BTW: It is backward compatible with the Oracle 9 databases.
Time is cut off in Oracle dates
Oracle changed back and forth the mapping of internal types to JDBC times in Oracle 8 and 11, the mapping in Oracle 9 and 10 is wrong, see http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/jdbc-faq-090281.html#08_00 . In order to fix the behaviour, use the newest available Oracle 11 JDBC driver you can get, it is backward compatible down to Oracle 9 and provides a proper mapping of the date type for all Oracle database versions.
Benerator expects single-valued ids. It does not automatically support composite keys and composite references.
Since composite keys typically have a business meaning, most composite keys cannot be automatically generated. So there is no need to support this.
If you encounter a composite key, manually configure how to create each key component.
Importing Excel Sheets
For a beginner it is sometimes confusing, how Benerator handles imported Excel sheets. For this task it completely relies on the cell type configured in the original sheet. So if you have a Date cell in the Excel sheet and format it as number or text, benerator will interpret it as double or string.
Another popular error comes from columns that contain long code numbers and have the default format: They are imported as numbers and e.g. leading zeros are lost. In such case explicitly format the column as text in Excel.
Apache POI represents all numbers as variables of type
double. So there are numbers which are simple in decimal format but not so in binary: when
importing the number 1.95 from an Excel sheet, the user gets a value of 1.95000000002. For now, you need to round the values yourself, e.g. by a
Number Generation on Oracle
When generating very large decimal values (> 1.000.000.000) in an Oracle database you may observe that smaller numbers are written to the database,
losing some trailing zeros or even cutting the whole number to a decimal with one prefix digit and several fractional digits. This results from a bug
in Oracles older JDBC drivers and can be fixed by using the newest driver version (note that you can even use
11.x JDBC drivers for
Unknown Column Type
If your application makes use of a database's proprietary column types, you may run into an exception when Benerator encounters it. If you know how to create and handle data for this column type, you can do so by configuring the database to accept unknown column types :
<database ... acceptUnknownColumnTypes="true">
Table 'X' not found in the expected catalog 'Y' and schema 'Z'
This message tells you, that you database configuration is wrong. Check and fix the 'schema' and 'catalog' settings in your database configuration, e.g.
<database … catalog="main" schema="Z" />
or your environment configuration, e.g.
Note: On most systems (e.g. Oracle, HSQL) no catalog needs to be specified.